Machines should be able to set themselves up when the data regarding material properties and desired process parameters is known. During the process, it would be ideal if they could adapt themselves and detect defects or malfunction automatically. This would reduce set-up times, increase flexibility of the machines and increase product quality and process reliability, avoiding defects and rejected products. Research in this direction has been carried out by several investigators, such as Clapp , who studied the interface between the machine and the material feeding system, Stylios  who proposed the principles of intelligent sewing machines, amongst others. Within our team, previous work has been carried out on thread tensions, material feeding and needle penetration forces in overlock machines [3-5]. Other studies targeted needle and bobbin thread tension measurement on lockstitch machines [8-10]. The sewing process is a cyclic process in which several occurrences take place. The objective is to interlace thread(s) with each other and through a fabric, for the purpose of joining, finishing, protecting or decorating. Three main “sub”-processes can be identified that ideally should be monitored and/or controlled automatically: -Material feeding. Seams are produced on the fabric with a certain pattern, which is, in the simplest case, a straight line, but may also be a complicated form such as the ones used in embroidery operations. To form these patterns, the material has to be transported-“fed” by a distance that is called the stitch length. Given that industrial machines operate at very high speeds (some of them attaining 10 000 stitches per minute), the dynamics involved is complex and there are very often problems with material deformation and irregular stitch length. Some of these aspects have been addressed in [1-3, 5]; -Needle penetration.
Considering again the high sewing speeds that occur, problems with needle penetration can arise due to the mechanical and thermal interaction between needle and fabric. Fabric yarns may be torn by the forces acting during needle penetration or they may fuse due to the high needle penetration produced by friction. Systems to monitor needle penetration forces during the process to detect defects and off-line systems to support the choice of needles and fine-tune fabric structures and finishing to avoid these problems, would be of high value to the industry. This kind of approach has been studies by several author
It has been shown that the number of plies / material thickness produces statistically significant variations in thread force peaks, as expected. However, the variations are not always as expected. Further experimentation relating the static thread tension adjustment, the materials and the resulting thread forces, related to the evaluation of the seams by experienced sewing technicians and objective tests such as seam strength will shed some light on the principles of correct adjustment. This will allow the development of systems to automatically adapt the machine to new materials and to monitor the process avoiding defects and low quality seams. Other process variables such as needle penetration force and thread consumption will be included in this analysis in future work. https://www.vssewingmachine.in/